The subject pronouns in Italian are:
- Io – I
- Tu – Singular You
- Lui – He
- Lei – She
- Esso/Essa – It (archaic and literary)
- Noi – We
- Voi – Plural You / You all
- Loro – They (speaking of people)
- Essi/Esse – They (archaic and literary)
The verb is always conjugated to match the subject, and the subject is only specified for clarity or emphasis.
Articles have to match gender and number of the noun they refer to.
The singular determinate articles (the) are:
- Lo – masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
- Il – masculine, used before consonants except the above.
- La – feminine, used before all consonants.
- L’ – an elision of the above used before vowels.
The indeterminate articles (a/an) are:
- Uno – masculine, used before Z, S+consonant, GN, and some rarer consonant clusters.
- Un – masculine, used in all other cases.
- Una – feminine, used before all consonants.
- Un’ – feminine, used before vowels.